There are three types of electric vehicles in mass production today;

- Unplugged hybrid electric vehicles,

- Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles,

- Full electric vehicles with batteries

Motor structure and battery charge methods of these three types of electric vehicles are given in the chart below.


VEHICLE TYPEMOTOR TYPEBATTERY CHARGING STATUS
Hybrid Electric VehicleInternal Combustion Motor
Electric Motor
Internal
Plug-in Hybrid Electric VehicleInternal Combustion Motor
Electric Motor
Internal and/or External
Battery Electric VehicleElectric MotorExternal

Chart: ... Motor Types and Charge Methods of Electric Vehicles

UNPLUGGED HYBRİD ELECTRİC VEHİCLES

Unplugged hybrid electric vehicles use two separate motors. These two motors are conventional internal combustion engine (working with petrol, diesel, LPG) and electric motor.

Two different motors are used together in order to provide better performance and fuel economy when compared with conventional vehicles.

Basic feature of unplugged hybrid electrical vehicles is that electric motor can be used as a generator. In this system electric motor is used as generator while the vehicle goes on fuel motor and electric power is generated to charge batteries. On the other hand when electric motor is used, energy stored in batteries operates the electric motor. As this technology also uses fuel, it pollutes air and it is used as a transition to full electric system. In this choice, smaller electric motor and its battery are useful in start-stop consumption in the city.

PLUG-IN HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLES

These vehicles have internal combustion motor and plug-in charged electric motor. They are charged from an external source as they have a bigger battery group when compared with unplugged hybrid electric vehicles. This kind of vehicle makes the general structure more efficient by using fossıl fuels separately or electric system or both of them at the same time. Fossil fuel dependence is also reduced.

Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles are directly connected to the mains with plugs in order to charge their batteries. Besides, electric motor work as a generator while the vehicles goes on combustion engine and charges battery. Therefore both internal and external charge is provided in plug-in electric vehicles.


FULL ELECTRIC VEHICLES WITH BATTERY

Full Electric Vehicles with Battery are composed of a battery located at the bottom of vehicle and an electric motor.

OPERATION PRINCIPLE

Battery Electric Vehicles provide power transmission to turn wheels with parts like electric motors, battery groups and electric motor controllers.

Batteries with high power capacity use mains power and regenerative braking principle for charging. Electric motor works as a generator and charges batteries while you go down a hill or brake. Batteries are charged with alternative current AC and direct current DC.


ADVANTAGES/DISADVANTAGES

ADVANTAGES/DISADVANTAGES OF BATTERY ELECTRIC VEHICLES

Advantages of Battery Electric Vehicles;

  • Battery Electric Vehicles take the energy to move from batteries. Therefore they do not create emissions that pollute the environment and they are named as “zero emission vehicles”.
  • As these vehicles do not have Internal Combustion Engine and use electric motor instead, they work silently when compared with conventional vehicles.
  • Due to regenerative braking system they provide longer brake life and regenerated kinetic energy is transformed to electric power. This power gained during braking charges batteries.
  • Fuel cost is lower than fossil fuels.
  • Maintenance and repair costs are also lower than other vehicles. Parts which need to be lubricated or adjusted are less than conventional vehicles and this creates important advantages.
  • Motors transfer power directly to wheels which reduces loss of power between motor and wheels as it is seen in internal combustion engines.